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杭州翻譯公司教你比簡單重復更有效的記憶方法

時間:2015-11-27 09:10來源:未知 作者:hzhxfy88888
  

 A team of scientists recently discovered that repetition is a terrible way to memorize information—and their findings highlight much better strategies.

一組科學家最近發現重復記憶信息的方式是一種很糟的記憶方式,新的記憶方式強調從策略上找出更好的記憶方式。

 

A new study published in Learning and Memory found that simple repetition interferes with the ability to learn new information, especially when it is similar to a set of familiar facts. This may mean that memorizing facts about an issue through repetition could interfere with the ability to remember a more nuanced version of the same issue later on.

一項新的研究發現發表在《學習和記憶》雜志上,簡單的重復性記憶方式干擾學習新信息的能力,尤其是記憶一組類似熟悉的事實。通過反復重復的方式記住的東西可能會干擾對同一問題的更加具體版本的記憶能力。

 

In study, subjects said a list of objects either one or three times. Later on, in the recall phase, another set of similar objects ("lures") was snuck in. Those who had seen objects multiple times better recalled the original objects but had a harder time distinguishing the lures. In other words, their memories were stronger but less precise. Over the long run, repetition can be a false temptress, making us think we've learning something when we really haven't.

在研究中,讓參與者對一個單詞列表重復記三遍左右。在接下來的回憶階段,在單詞表里添加了一個相似的單詞(“魚餌”)。記過幾遍單詞列表的人對原單詞列表的記憶頗深,但很難注意到細微的區別。也就是說,他們的記憶雖深但不夠精確。從長期來看,重復性記憶很可能會成為虛假的誘惑變成一個幌子,其實我們并沒有精確地記住東西,只是給我們造成的假象而已。

 

Here are a few tips for better memory:

這里有幾個記憶小竅門:

 

Pace your studying

給學習分段

 

Not all repetition is bad. It's more accurate to say that cramming is ineffective. “The better idea is to space repetition. Practice a little bit one day, then put your flashcards away, then take them out the next day, then two days later," explain McDaniel and Roediger.

并不是所有的重復性記憶都不可取,死記硬背沒有用。“更好的辦法是把重復性記憶間隔開來。一天練習著記一點,慢慢到了不用卡片記憶,第二天,再把卡片拿出來記,兩天后,再把卡片拿出來記,”麥克丹尼爾·羅迪格解釋說。

 

Mentally testing yourself on materials generally increases recall days later, even if there's no feedback on how well you actually remember the facts. In other words, just going over the material in your head at regular intervals has benefits.

用記憶材料對自己的記憶力進行測試,一般都能記幾天的時間,即使實際上對你記的內容并沒有什么反饋信息,也要在你的腦海中定期對記憶材料回想一遍,這樣對記憶有好處。

 

Within academia, there's a raging debate about the optimal spacing between recall intervals. One of the original systems, by foreign language learning icon Paul Pimsleur, advocated for a pacing of five seconds, 25 seconds, two minutes, 10 minutes, one hour, five hours, one day, five days, 25 days, four months, and two years after the facts are initially learned. Since then, others have found that a slight delay of 10 minutes in the first retrieval made the task just mentally challenging enough to be beneficial. But it depends on the goal; if it's to memorize a speech in a day, you'll probably want to cram more intervals than if you want to remember something five years later.

在學術界,關于分段回憶最佳間隔期的爭論一直都很激烈。其中最初的一個記憶體系是保羅·羅皮姆斯勒式外語學習,主張分段記憶的時間段為5秒、25秒、兩分鐘、10分鐘、一小時、五小時、一天、五天、25天、4個月、兩年后進入初步學習階段。另有其他人發現在首次回憶推遲10分鐘的內,在回想記憶的過程中從精神上足以受益。但這取決于記憶目標,你想把一個演講內容記一天的時間可能更多要依賴于死記硬背,你想要五年后都能記住的東西可能就要采取分段記憶法了,多分出幾個時間間隔段進行分段記憶。

 

I've been experimenting with recall intervals one hour after I read material, then again when I'm at the gym, trying to recall facts learned during the previous three days, one week, and one month prior. The optimal intervals will ultimately depend on your schedule.

我在讀過材料后間隔一小時的時間回想一下讀過的內容,接著,在健身房的時候再回想一下讀過的內容,試著回想三天前、一周前、一個月前讀過的內容。最佳間隔時間段最終要按閱讀進度進行分段記憶。

 


Use Loci

使用位置記憶法/軌跡法

 

The ancient granddaddy of advanced memory techniques is the method of Loci, which involves placing objects in sequential order in a mentally constructed (imaginary) world. The most famous memory man of all time, Solomon Shereshevsky, who could recall sets of random numbers years later, used to imagine himself placing objects near buildings.

古代老祖宗使用的高級記憶法就是位置記憶法/軌跡法,其中包括記憶對象的排列順序和虛構的空間想象結構。最著名的記憶高人所羅門·舍雷舍夫斯基能對隨機記憶內容記住數年的時間,把自己想象成是置身于附近建筑物的對象。

 

World Memory Champion Dominic O'Brien gives practical tips about developing one's own Loci method. O'Brien advocates using Loci places of familiarity, like the walk down a familiar neighborhood block or location within your own home. So, for instance, if you want to memorize the words "Duck," "Car," and "Boat," you might imagine placing a duck on the living room floor, a car in the bathroom, and a boat on the patio. For more complicated tasks, it might help to link them together, like imagining a giant duck walking to a car in the bathroom.

世界記憶冠軍多米尼克·奧布賴恩就如何用軌跡記憶法開發自己驚人的記憶力給出幾點實用技巧。奧布賴恩提倡使用軌跡記憶法從熟悉的地方入手開始記憶,從如同自家小區里那樣熟悉的地方開始進行記憶。所以,例如,如果你想記住“鴨”、“車”、“船”這幾個單詞("Duck," "Car," and "Boat”),你就想象把一只鴨子在客廳地板上的場景,一輛汽車在浴室的場景、一艘船在院子里的場景。這樣的記憶法有助于把較為復雜難記的東西聯系在一起進行記憶,像想象一只大鴨子在浴室里走向一輛車的場景。

 

Connect the dots

連點記憶法

 

Understanding is the basis for easier memorization. Chess masters have a much easier time memorizing location of chess pieces than beginners, even though they're recalling the same information.

理解著記比較容易記住。象棋大師記棋子的走法比新手輕松容易,在回憶同樣的信息時,也能較為容易地回想起來。

 

In a study published in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, researchers found that second-year biology students had an easier time learning new information if it was related to programs they were already studying. "If you don't immediately know the answer to a question, you could first try recalling what you already know about that topic. This might help you to come up with the right answer after all," concludes one of the researchers.

在《認知神經科學雜志》上發表的一項研究中,研究人員發現二年級的生物學專業學生在學習和已學知識相關的新信息時較為容易。“如果你不想馬上知道問題的答案,你可以先試著回憶你知道的內容信息。這有助于你想出正確的答案,”其中一位研究人員總結道。

 

In other words, the more widely knowledgeable we are about a subject, the easier it is to retain and retrieve information. So, read books and the news widely. The more you know, the more you'll be able to know.

換句話說,對一個科目的知識面越廣,越容易記住并回憶檢索到信息。因此,要多看書多看新聞。你知道的越多,越容易掌握新知識。

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